CNC machine operation tips

Source: Zhejiang Hitique CNC Machine Co., Ltd.Release time: 2022-05-16

I. Programming skills

To be proficient in program editing, compensation of parameters of each process and compensation of diameter and length of tool or grinding wheel.

1. Processing order of parts.

Drilling first and then flat end (this is to prevent shrinkage when drilling).

Rough turning first, then finish turning (this is to ensure the accuracy of the part).

First processing tolerance large last processing tolerance small (this is to ensure that the small tolerance size surface is not scratched and prevent parts deformation).

2. According to the hardness of the material to choose a reasonable speed, feed and depth of cut:.

(1) carbon steel materials choose high speed, high feed, large depth of cut. For example: 1Gr11, choose S1600, F0.2, depth of cut 2mm.

(2) Carbide material choose low speed, low feed, small depth of cut. For example: GH4033, choose S800, F0.08, depth of cut 0.5mm.

(3)Titanium alloy choose low speed, high feed, small depth of cut. Such as: Ti6, choose S400, F0.2, depth of cut 0.3mm. to process a part for example: the material is K414, this material is a special hard material, after several trials, the final choice for S360, F0.1, depth of cut 0.2, before processing qualified parts.

II. Tool setting skills

Tool setting is divided into tool setting instrument and direct tool setting.

First select the center of the right end face of the part for the tooling point, and set to zero point, the machine back to the origin, each need to use the tool to the center of the right end face of the part for the zero point on the tool; tool contact to the right end face of the input Z0 click on the measurement, tool complement value inside the tool will automatically record the measured value, which means that the Z axis on the tooling is good, X on the tooling for the test cut on the tooling, with the tool to turn the outer circle of the part less, measuring the value of the outer circle being turned (such as x for 20mm) input x20, click measure, the tool complement value will automatically record the measured value, then the x-axis is also good; this tooling method, even if the machine tool power off, call restart still will not change the tooling value, can be applied to a large number of long time production of the same parts, during the shutdown of the lathe also do not need to re-tool.

III. Debugging skills

In order to prevent errors in the program and tooling errors, which can cause collision accidents, we should first carry out empty stroke simulation processing, in the machine tool coordinate system in the face of the tool to the right of the overall translation of the total length of the part 2-3 times; then start simulation processing, after the completion of simulation processing to confirm that the program and tooling errors, and then Begin processing of parts, the first parts after processing, first self-test, to confirm qualified, and then find a full-time inspection check, full-time inspection to confirm qualified after the commissioning is over.

IV. Complete the processing of parts

The basic principles of parts processing: first rough machining, the workpiece to remove excess material, and then finishing; machining should avoid the occurrence of vibration; to avoid thermal degeneration of the workpiece processing, resulting in vibration occurs for many reasons, may be too large a load; may be the resonance of the machine tool and workpiece, or may be the machine tool is not rigid enough, or may be caused by the tool after dulling, we can reduce vibration by the following methods We can reduce the vibration by the following methods; reduce the lateral feed and machining depth, check whether the workpiece clamping is secure, improve the tool speed latter reduce the speed can reduce the resonance, in addition, check whether it is necessary to replace the new tool.

V. Prevent machine tool collisions

Machine tool collision is a great damage to the accuracy of the machine tool, the impact on different types of machine tools are different, in general, for the rigid machine tool is not strong impact. Therefore, for high-precision CNC lathes, collision should be absolutely eliminated, as long as the operator is careful and master certain methods of anti-collision, collision is completely preventable and avoidable.

The most important reasons for collision

1. wrong input of the diameter and length of the tool.

2. Incorrect input of the dimensions of the workpiece and other related geometric dimensions, as well as incorrect positioning of the initial position of the workpiece.

3. incorrect setting of the machine tool's workpiece coordinate system, or the machine zero point being reset during machining.

4. Machine tool collisions mostly occur during the rapid movement of the machine tool, when the collision is also the most harmful, should be absolutely avoided.

So the operator should pay special attention to the machine tool in the implementation of the initial stage of the program and the machine tool in the time of tool replacement, when once the program is incorrectly edited, the tool diameter and length input error, then it is easy to collision. At the end of the program, the CNC axis of the wrong sequence of retreat action, then a collision may also occur.

In order to avoid the above collision, the operator in the operation of the machine tool, to give full play to the five senses, observe the machine tool has no abnormal action, there is no spark, there is no noise and abnormal rattling, there is no vibration, there is no burnt smell. Abnormalities found should immediately stop the program, to be resolved after the machine tool problem, the machine can continue to work.

In short, mastering the operating skills of CNC machine tools is a gradual process, and can not be achieved overnight. It is built on the mastery of the basic operation of the machine tool, basic knowledge of machining and basic programming knowledge. CNC machine tool operating skills are not static, it is the need for the operator to give full play to the imagination and hands-on ability of the organic combination of innovative labor.